gʷer-2, gʷerǝ-, gʷerǝu-, gʷerī-


gʷer-2, gʷerǝ-, gʷerǝu-, gʷerī-
    gʷer-2, gʷerǝ-, gʷerǝu-, gʷerī-
    English meaning: heavy
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘schwer”
    Material: O.Ind. gurú-ḥ “ heavy, wichtig, ehrwũrdig” (compounds gárīyün, Sup. güriṣ ṭ ha-ḥ), ágru- “ledig”, gru-muṣṭí-ḥ “ heavy handful “, garimǘ ‘schwere” (*gʷerǝ-); Av. gouru- (in compound) “ heavy “; Pers. girün “ heavy “ (*grüna-; reshuffling after *früna- “full”); Gk. βαρύς “ heavy “, βαρύνω “beschwere”, βάρος n. ‘schwere”; Lat. gravis “ heavy, weighty “ (*gʷrǝ-u̯-is); M.Ir. bair “ heavy “ (?), baire “ distress (?)”, bruth “Gewicht, mass” (*gʷrutu-), Welsh bryw ‘strong, strength “ (*bruwo-), M.Ir. bró “bulk, mass”; Goth. kaúrjōs nom. pl. f. “ heavy “, kaúrjan “beschweren”; Lith. gùrstu, gùrti ‘sich lay, place (of Winde)”, Ltv. gur̃stu, gur̃t “languish; sich lay, place (of Winde)”, gur̃ds “ermũdet, faint, languid” (compare also βαρύς and gravis in the meaning “beschwert, niedergedrũckt, faint, languid”), whereof with further shifting from “faint, languid, beschwert” to “tame, domesticated, mild” (compare O.H.G. jümar “kummervoll” : Gk. ἥμερος “tame, domesticated”) perhaps: Goth. qaírrus “ἤπιος, gentle”, qaírrei ‘sanftmut”, O.N. kyrr, kvirr ‘still, peaceful, friedlich”, M.H.G. kũrre, Ger. kirre “tame, domesticated, zutraulich” (*gʷer-ǝrós or -erós, -urós); Ltv. grũts “ heavy “ = Lat. brūtus (Osc.-Umbr. loanword) “ heavy, schwerfällig, insensible, unvernũnftig”; Toch. A kra-marts “ heavy “ (?); Van Windekens Lexique 44. Here further as n- derivatives from gʷerǝ- and gʷerüu-: Goth. (asilu-) qaírnus “(Esels)mũhle” (*gʷerǝnu-), O.N. kvern f. (*gʷernü) “Mũhlstein, Handmũhle”, O.E. cweorn ds., O.H.G. quirn, quirna ds.; zero grade Bal.-Slav. ū-stem gīrnū- f. “Handmũhle” (*ĝʷr̥̄nu-) in: O.Pruss. girnoywis (*girnuwis), Ltv. dzir̃nus, dzir̃navas; besides Ltv. dzir̃nas f. pl. and Lith.gìrnos f. pl.; in addition Lith. gerúkštis, Ltv. dzerûkslis m. “dens molaris”; O.C.S. žrъnъvi f. pl. “mill”, in addition žrъnovь m. “Mũhlstein”; Sloven. žr̂ nǝv f. “Handmũhle”, Pol. żarna N. pl. ds.; Russ. žë rnov m. “Mũhlstein”; O.C.S. žrъny “mill”, and on the other hand O.Ind. grǘ van- m. “ stone zum Somapressen”, Arm. erkan “Mũhlstein” (*gʷrünü), O.Ir. bráu, gen. broon “Mũhlstein, Handmũhle”, Welsh breuan (from dem stem the case oblique *gʷrüu̯ n̥ -), O.Corn. brou, Bret. breo (Nominativform *gʷrüu̯ ō) “Mũhlstein”. gʷerī̆-: besides O.Ind. gárī-yan (?, see above) here: Gk. βρῖθος n. “Wucht, Gewicht, load”, βρῑθύς “wuchtig, heavy “, βρί̄θω “bin heavy, belastet, trans. beschwere”, probably also βρί̄μη “(wuchtiger) attack, rage, fury, abusive word, insult “, βρῑμοῦσθαι “ heavy be angry with”, ὄβριμος “vast, grand, strong”, βριμός μέγας, χαλεπός Hes.; βριαρός “tight, firm, strong”, next to which die Kompositionsform *βρι(ι)- in βρι-ήπυος “violent schreiend”, Βρι-άρεως (“wer großen Schaden bringt”), βρι-ηρόν μεγάλως κεχαρισμένον Hes. (βρῖ βριαρόν and βρί ἐπι τοῦ μεγάλου perhaps previously from den compounds released, liberated), here with prefix Gk. ὑ- (*ud) probably also Gk. ὕβρις “Gewalttätigkeit, Frevel, ũbermũtige action”, ὕβρις ανήρ “gewalttätiger man, husband” due to the imagining ‘sich with dem ganzen Gewicht seiner power auf etwas overthrow “; -νδ- present βρινδεῖν θυμοῦσθαι, ἐρεθίζειν Hes.; O.Ir. brīg “ force, power, Wert”, Welsh bri “ stateliness “, Corn. bry “Wert”; Ger. Krieg, O.H.G. krēg “Hartnäckigkeit”, M.H.G. kriec “Anstrengung, fight, struggle”, md. M.L.G. krīgen ‘sich anstrengen, trachten, fight, bekommen” (*grīgh-, respectively Gmc. partly grēigh-)?? Ltv. grins “cruel, savage, angry, irate”, grînums “Härte, austereness, severeness “?
    References: WP. I 684 ff., WH. I 117 f., 621, Trautmann 89.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.